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A weak monarch, he was forced to abdicate, thus ending more than years of Romanov rule in Russia. He studied under private tutors, was an accomplished linguist, and traveled extensively in Russia and abroad. In he made a voyage around the world.
Nicholas held customary commissions in the guards, rising, while heir apparent, to the rank of colonel. His participation in affairs of state prior to the death of his father was limited to attendance at meetings of the committee of ministers and of the state council.
Throughout his life Nicholas kept with remarkable regularity a diary that throws much light on his character and interests.
Hardly a day passed without a record of what Nicholas regarded as its most noteworthy events. These entries, comprising merely a few lines each, noted official visits; dwelt with affection on the doings of his wife and children; and listed his recreational activities.
In his relations with courtiers and officials, Nicholas was considerate and kind, but his ministers could never be certain that the policies seemingly agreed upon would actually receive his assent or that a gracious audience would not be followed by a curt dismissal from office.
Nicholas became emperor on the death of his father on Oct.
Less than a month after his coronation, he married Princess Alice of Hesse-Darmstadt. It was a marriage of love, and he remained to the end an exemplary husband and devoted father.
His son Alexis, born insuffered from hemophilia. Desperate efforts to save Alexis's life later led to the incredible episode of Rasputin, a monk who employed hypnotic power to stop Alexis's bleeding.
In this manner Rasputin became a dominating influence at the royal court. The deeper cause of Rasputin's influence, as well as of many of Nicholas's difficulties, lay in the Czar's refusal to concern himself with political questions and his staunch conviction that he must maintain the autocracy of his father.
Nicholas carried on his father's nationalism, his curtailment of the rights of minority nationalities, and his restrictions on nonorthodox religious groups.
He limited Finnish autonomy, which had been honored by Russian monarchs since The Czar's manifesto of February abolished the Finnish constitution and placed the function of making laws for Finland under the Russian imperial council. Nicholas pursued a strongly anti-Semitic policy. Jews could enroll in higher schools only under quota limits and were excluded from law practice, zemstvos local district and provincial assembliesand city councils.
Christian dissenters also were persecuted. The industrial boom of the early s led to Russia's first important strike movement between and University students had also begun to organize demonstrations and strikes.
The students' confrontations with the officials of St. Petersburg University led to a general strike in Russian higher education.Nicholas II was born on May 6, (from the Julian calendar, which was used in Russia until ) in Pushkin, Russia. He inherited the throne when his father, Alexander III, died in Born: May 06, Nicholas II: Nicholas II, the last Russian emperor (–), who, with his wife, Alexandra, and their children, was killed by the Bolsheviks.
Biography of Nicholas II, last emperor of Russia.
Find out more about Emperor Nicholas II and other Romanov rulers of Russia. On the death of Nicholas I, Alexander II became Tsar. On 15 January , the new tsar took Russia out of the war on very unfavorable terms, which included the loss of a naval fleet on the Black Sea.
Death. Nicholas I of Russia: Frederick Charles, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental: Charles Alexander, Duke of Württemberg. Nicholas I: Nicholas I, Russian emperor (–55), often considered the personification of classic autocracy.
For his reactionary policies, he has been called the emperor who froze Russia for 30 years. Learn more about the life and significance of Tsar Nicholas I . Determined that Russia should not be left out in the scramble for colonial possessions, Nicholas encouraged Russian expansion in Manchuria.
This provoked war with Japan in The resulting.