Chapter 7 paris to berlin 1885

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Chapter 7 paris to berlin 1885

Chapter 7 paris to berlin 1885 Declaration relative to freedom of trade in the basin of the Congo, its embouchures and circumjacent regions, Chapter 7 paris to berlin 1885 other provisions connected therewith.

A Declaration relative to the slave trade, and the operations by sea or land which furnish slaves to that trade. A Declaration relative to the neutrality of the territories comprised in the Conventional basin of the Congo.

An Act of Navigation for the Niger, which, while likewise having regard to local circumstances, extends to this river and its affluents the same principles as set forth in Articles 58 and 66 of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna.

Chapter 7 paris to berlin 1885

A Declaration introducing into international relations certain uniform rules with reference to future occupations on the coast of the African Continent. And deeming it expedient that all these several documents should be combined in one single instrument, they the Signatory Powers have collected them into one General Act, composed of the following Articles: In all the regions forming the basin of the Congo and its outlets.

It therefore comprises all the regions watered by the Congo and its affluents, including Lake Tanganyika, with its eastern tributaries.

It is expressly recognized that in extending the principle of free trade to this eastern zone the Conference Powers only undertake engagements for themselves, and that in the territories belonging to an independent Sovereign State this principle shall only be applicable in so far as it is approved by such State.

But the Powers agree to use their good offices with the Governments established on the African shore of the Indian Ocean for the purpose of obtaining such approval, and in any case of securing the most favourable conditions to the transit traffic of all nations. Article 2 All flags, without distinction of nationality, shall have free access to the whole of the coastline of the territories above enumerated, to the rivers there running into the sea, to all the waters of the Congo and its affluents, including the lakes, and to all the ports situate on the banks of these waters, as well as to all canals which may in future be constructed with intent to unite the watercourses or lakes within the entire area of the territories described in Article 1.

Those trading under such flags may engage in all sorts of transport, and carry on the coasting trade by sea and river, as well as boat traffic, on the same footing as if they were subjects.

Article 3 Wares, of whatever origin, imported into these regions, under whatsoever flag, by sea or river, or overland, shall be subject to no other taxes than such as may be levied as fair compensation for expenditure in the interests of trade, and which for this reason must be equally borne by the subjects themselves and by foreigners of all nationalities.

All differential dues on vessels, as well as on merchandise, are forbidden. Article 4 Merchandise imported into these regions shall remain free from import and transit dues. The Powers reserve to themselves to determine after the lapse of twenty years whether this freedom of import shall be retained or not.

Article 5 No Power which exercises or shall exercise sovereign rights in the abovementioned regions shall be allowed to grant therein a monopoly or favour of any kind in matters of trade. Foreigners, without distinction, shall enjoy protection of their persons and property, as well as the right of acquiring and transferring movable and immovable possessions; and national rights and treatment in the exercise of their professions.

They shall, without distinction of creed or nation, protect and favour all religious, scientific or charitable institutions and undertakings created and organized for the above ends, or which aim at instructing the natives and bringing home to them the blessings of civilization.

Christian missionaries, scientists and explorers, with their followers, property and collections, shall likewise be the objects of especial protection. Freedom of conscience and religious toleration are expressly guaranteed to the natives, no less than to subjects and to foreigners.

The free and public exercise of all forms of divine worship, and the right to build edifices for religious purposes, and to organize religious missions belonging to all creeds, shall not be limited or fettered in any way whatsoever.

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The Powers who therein do or shall exercise rights of sovereignty or Protectorate engage, as soon as circumstances permit them, to take the measures necessary for the carrying out of the preceding provision. In all cases of difference arising relative to the application of the principles established by the present Declaration, the Governments concerned may agree to appeal to the good offices of the International Commission, by submitting to it an examination of the facts which shall have occasioned these differences.

Each of the Powers binds itself to employ all the means at its disposal for putting an end to this trade and for punishing those who engage in it.

Article 11 In case a Power exercising rights of sovereignty or Protectorate in the countries mentioned in Article 1, and placed under the free trade system, shall be involved in a war, then the High Signatory Parties to the present Act, and those who shall hereafter adopt it, bind themselves to lend their good offices in order that the territories belonging to this Power and comprised in the Conventional free trade zone shall, by the common consent of this Power and of the other belligerent or belligerents, be placed during the war under the rule of neutrality, and considered as belonging to a non-belligerent State, the belligerents thenceforth abstaining from extending hostilities to the territories thus neutralized, and from using them as a base for warlike operations.

Article 12 In case a serious disagreement originating on the subject of, or in the limits of, the territories mentioned in Article 1, and placed under the free trade system, shall arise between any Signatory Powers of the present Act, or the Powers which may become parties to it, these Powers bind themselves, before appealing to arms, to have recourse to the mediation of one or more of the friendly Powers.

In a similar case the same Powers reserve to themselves the option of having recourse to arbitration. It shall be regulated by the provisions of this Act of Navigation, and by the rules to be made in pursuance thereof. In the exercise of this navigation the subjects and flags of all nations shall in all respects be treated on a footing of perfect equality, not only for the direct navigation from the open sea to the inland ports of the Congo, and vice versa, but also for the great and small coasting trade, and for boat traffic on the course of the river.

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Consequently, on all the course and mouths of the Congo there will be no distinction made between the subjects of riverain States and those of non-riverain States, and no exclusive privilege of navigation will be conceded to companies, corporations or private persons whatsoever.

These provisions are recognized by the Signatory Powers as becoming henceforth a part of international law. Article 14 The navigation of the Congo shall not be subject to any restriction or obligation which is not expressly stipulated by the present Act.

It shall not be exposed to any landing dues, to any station or depot tax, or to any charge for breaking bulk, or for compulsory entry into port.

In all the extent of the Congo the ships and goods in process of transit on the river shall be submitted to no transit dues, whatever their starting place or destination. There shall be levied no maritime or river toll based on the mere fact of navigation, nor any tax on goods aboard of ships.

There shall only be levied taxes or duties having the character of an equivalent for services rendered to navigation itself, to wit: Harbour dues on certain local establishments, such as wharves, warehouses, etc, if actually used.

The tariff of such dues shall be framed according to the cost of constructing and maintaining the said local establishments; and it will be applied without regard to whence vessels come or what they are loaded with.


Pilot dues for those stretches of the river where it may be necessary to establish properly qualified pilots. The tariff of these dues shall be fixed and calculated in proportion to the service rendered. Charges raised to cover technical and administrative expenses incurred in the general interest of navigation, including lighthouse, beacon and buoy duties.

The tariffs by which the various dues and taxes enumerated in the three preceding paragraphs shall be levied shall not involve any differential treatment, and shall be officially published at each port.Chapter 7 PARIS TO BERLIN ()• Barcelona - stopped in Barcelona to visit, Maximo Viola - Befriended Eusebio Corominas – editor of La public.

On August 7, , Pope Clement XIV, after four years of stalling, finally acceded to the pressure exerted by the House of Bourbon and its Masonic ministers and suppressed the religious order known as the Society of Jesus throughout the entire world. The Jesuits had already been suppressed civilly in Portugal and France; their suppression by the Church they sought to serve was a move that.

Bibliography of books on Cartridges or Ammunition. Compiled by Jonathan Uhlman(updated December ) An explanatory note: This bibliography for the most part focuses upon ‘Primarily Cartridge Oriented’ works, and leaves many works where Cartridges are secondary or tertiary to the work off the attempt made to list .

THE LIFE OF SAINT SEVERINUS. CHAPTER I.. At the time of the death of Attila, king of the Huns, 12 confusion reigned in the two Pannonias and the other borderlands of the Danube.

Then Severinus, most holy servant of God, came from the parts of the East to the marches of Riverside Noricum 13 and the Pannonias, and tarried in a little town which is called Asturis.

14 There he lived in accordance. Rizal's life in Berlin. The Iphone 5C is Iphone 5Colorful 5c can also stand for thenumber ("c" is the Roman numeral for ) or for 5 degreesCelsius (centigrade).

Chapter 7 paris to berlin 1885

General Act of the Berlin Conference on West Africa, 26 February Signed by the representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the United States of America, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Sweden-Norway, and Turkey (Ottoman Empire).

Bibliography Of Books On Cartridges Or Ammunition - International Ammunition Association