History[ edit ] Long before the invention of electronic signal processingsome people tried to build machines to emulate human speech. In the German - Danish scientist Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein won the first prize in a competition announced by the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences and Arts for models he built of the human vocal tract that could produce the five long vowel sounds in International Phonetic Alphabet notation: InCharles Wheatstone produced a "speaking machine" based on von Kempelen's design, and inJoseph Faber exhibited the " Euphonia ". In Paget resurrected Wheatstone's design.
Actually, there is such evidence. This link persisted even after the researchers factored in the possibility that more empathetic individuals might choose to read more novels. Its disappearance would imperil the intellectual and emotional development of generations growing up online, as well as the perpetuation of a critical part of our culture: Although deep reading does not, strictly speaking, require a conventional book, the built-in limits of the printed page are uniquely conducive to the deep reading experience.
That immersion is supported by the way the brain handles language rich in detail, allusion and metaphor: The emotional situations and moral dilemmas that are the stuff of literature are also vigorous exercise for the brain, propelling us inside the heads of fictional characters and even, studies suggest, increasing our real-life capacity for empathy.
Although we call the activity by the same name, the deep reading of books and the information-driven reading we do on the Web are very different, both in the experience they produce and in the capacities they develop.
Those who read only onscreen were three times less likely to say they enjoy reading very much and a third less likely to have a favorite book. The study also found that young people who read daily only onscreen were nearly two times less likely to be above-average readers than those who read daily in print or both in print and onscreen.
The Story and Science of the Reading Brain.
Unlike the ability to understand and produce spoken language, which under normal circumstances will unfold according to a program dictated by our genes, the ability to read must be painstakingly acquired by each individual.
The deep reader, protected from distractions and attuned to the nuances of language, enters a state that psychologist Victor Nell, in a study of the psychology of pleasure reading, likens to a hypnotic trance. Nell found that when readers are enjoying the experience the most, the pace of their reading actually slows.
The combination of fast, fluent decoding of words and slow, unhurried progress on the page gives deep readers time to enrich their reading with reflection, analysis, and their own memories and opinions. It gives them time to establish an intimate relationship with the author, the two of them engaged in an extended and ardent conversation like people falling in love.
Their reading is pragmatic and instrumental: And we will have deprived them of an elevating and enlightening experience that will enlarge them as people.Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech.A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech computer or speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or hardware products.
A text-to-speech (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech; other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech.
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