Child development 0—3 months Child development 0—3 months Coming into the world is a very big and scary adventure for babies. They can feel comfortable or uncomfortable, but they don't know that this is because they are full, safe, afraid, or hungry. They quickly learn to recognise the voice and smell possibly breast milk of the person who feeds them and holds them most often but they do not know this is their mother.
In particular it concerns such changes in children. There are a number of different approaches to the study of intellectual development in children. As in the history of most branches of scientific knowledge, the study began with observation and description.
Moreover, there was at first a tendency to attribute to the child mental processes that were simply miniature versions of adult thought patterns. Such early observers as Darwin were careful and deliberate, but their records often revealed the limitations of studying only one child, and the biases of the observer.
The growth of the mental testing movement in the first 40 years of the twentieth century testifies to the enthusiasm that was generated by the possibility of applying the precision of quantitative measurement to the task of comparing individual children and calibrating the changes that take place over the early years of life.
Although observation had been supplemented by measurement, the primary purpose of these efforts remained descriptive, and the generalizations achieved were themselves only descriptions of trends and improvements that occurred consistently with increasing age.
Still more recently, since aboutthere has been an increasing movement toward the laboratory study of the ways in which patterns of development themselves change as age changes. This recent work has been not so much concerned with the effects of age itself as with the development in children of certain functional relationships between experience and performance that have been demonstrated in human adults and have been found lacking in most infrahuman species.
The emphasis is on the application of laboratory controls and experimental manipulations to the study of cognitive development.
The aim is to control the stimulus conditions under which behavior is observed and to explain why intellect develops, as well as describing how and when it develops.
Rather, it relies on developmental descriptions of intellectual processes and products for clues as to when a certain level of understanding or specific intellectual accomplishment is likely to be achieved, and what repertoire of cognitive processes constitutes the means available for such an accomplishment at that age.
Even the correlation of processes with products over ages, however, leaves the detailed cause-effect analysis still to be performed. Although the present article is not primarily concerned with age changes per se, it should be noted that the description of age changes in intellectual functioning continues to thrive in two lines of research.
The second line of research is that of Jean Piaget and his associates on cognitive development. This large body of work has been concerned with the ontogenetic unfolding and evolution of cognitive capacities in the child, and like the work of Heinz Wernerit has an organic quality and a complexity that are quite different from the empirical, item-analysis tradition of the test developers.
Both of these lines of research are structural in emphasis, i. The test developers are concerned with objective measurement of capacities in quantitative terms governed by a sophisticated statistics and a well-worked-out theory of measurement. These lines of research are more concerned with the processes of learning and thinking than with the structure of understanding.
It is to the contributions of these functionalists that the present article is primarily devoted. It will be necessary first to summarize the most important age changes that have been described from infancy to adolescence.
Consideration is then given to cognition, seen as the elaboration and selective generalization of simpler forms of learning and conditioning. Concepts such as mediation, learning set, and expectancy are discussed in relation to experimental studies of discrimination learning and discrimination reversal, concept formation, and the perceptual constancies.
Curiosity and exploratory motivation are treated in relation to orienting responses and observing behavior. Research on acquired dis-tinctiveness, equivalence, and relevance of cues is presented as evidence for the importance of a general class of intervening responses, and the major role of language in this connection is stressed.
Finally, consideration is given to individual differences in cognitive style, including discussion of such variables as field dependency, rigidity, reflectivity, and creativity.
Overview of age changes Infancy Very little behavior in infancy possesses that degree of orderliness and abstractness which would qualify it as intellectual or cognitive.
There are evident, however, the beginnings of systematic relations with the environment that imply understanding on a primitive level. Beyond the specific and identifiable reflexes, newborn behavior is usually described as massive, diffuse, and all-or-none in its occurrence.A child’s language and speech development is obviously an important part of their social and intellectual development.
Here we will consider it as part of the cognitive development process, but recognise that it is part of other aspects of development. Experts divide child development into 5 areas: physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and language.
The stages of child development described here are guidelines only, not a set of rules. Learning about child development can guide your parenting. Sep 03, · What does physical, intellectual, emotional, social and spiritual changes/development means?
What can a teenager do physical, emotional, social, language and intellectual? What is meant by social, emotional and intellectual factors in the development of children?Status: Resolved.
Summarise the main development of a child from the age range , and years The main developments of a child are as follows: Physical Development Intellectual Development Language Development Emotional Development Social Development Here I will summarise the above points: Physical Development years The first physical .
Child development 0–3 months. Social and emotional development. Your newborn baby cannot understand what is happening to her.
In the first 3 months he is attracted by faces, bright light, primary colours, stripes, dots and patterns. The human face is the first 'object' he recognises by learning that the shapes of eyes, nose and mouth. fine motor development, gross motor development, and social behavior.
Different theorists have Sensorimotor (0 to 2 years of life) 2. Preoperational (age 2 to 7 years) 3. At each developmental stage, it is important to pay attention to significant physical, cognitive, language, emotional.